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Dutch Gold and Charles I's Turn from Spain, 1634-7 
Elizabeth Hines (University of Chicago, USA)

Why did Charles I and his supporters go from collecting ship money to fight the Dutch in 1634 to proposing a joint West India Company with them in 1637? I argue that Charles changed alliance because his political connection to the Orangist faction in the Netherlands gave him access to increasingly necessary financial resources. Customs farmers lending to Charles I, previously considered part of domestic funding of the government, in fact borrowed their money from Dutch Orangist merchants. It was Dutch money that helped Charles build the apparatus of his government and allowed him to continue to rule without Parliament.

A “dangerous instrument in the present state of troubled affairs”: French rebels in exile at the Stuart court, 1638-1642 
Christophe Gillain (University of Cambridge)

During the late 1630s, a thriving community of discontented French elites formed at the Stuart court. Granted asylum through their dynastic and personal links to Charles I and Henrietta Maria, these rebels opposed Cardinal Richelieu and desired peace between France and Spain. This paper reveals how they coordinated transnational efforts to overthrow the cardinal-minister, seeking military and diplomatic backing from foreign powers. Female exiles played a vital but under-examined role in brokering these alliances. Ultimately, however, the presence of French rebels not only roused English anti-Catholic sentiment, but caused a breakdown in relations between the Bourbon and Stuart courts.

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